Follow the link for more information. One example of a hymenopteran biological basis of behaviour pdf control agent.
Biological control or biocontrol is a method of controlling pests such as insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases using other organisms. Natural enemies of insect pests, also known as biological control agents, include predators, parasitoids, pathogens, and competitors. Biological control agents of plant diseases are most often referred to as antagonists. Biological control can have side-effects on biodiversity through attacks on non-target species by any of the same mechanisms, especially when a species is introduced without thorough understanding of the possible consequences. The term “biological control” was first used by Harry Scott Smith at the 1919 meeting of the Pacific Slope Branch of the American Association of Economic Entomologists, in Riverside, California.
It was brought into more widespread use by the entomologist Paul H. Biological control techniques as we know them today started to emerge in the 1870s. During this decade, in the USA, the Missouri State Entomologist C. Riley and the Illinois State Entomologist W.
The first international shipment of an insect as biological control agent was made by Charles V. In 1905 the USDA initiated its first large-scale biological control program, sending entomologists to Europe and Japan to look for natural enemies of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar dispar, and brown-tail moth, Euproctis chrysorrhoea, invasive pests of trees and shrubs. Prickly pear cacti were introduced into Queensland, Australia as ornamental plants, starting in 1788. They quickly spread to cover over 25 million hectares of Australia by 1920, increasing by 1 million hectares per year.
Digging, burning and crushing all proved ineffective. The first reported case of a classical biological control attempt in Canada involves the parasitoidal wasp Trichogramma minutum. Individuals were caught in New York State and released in Ontario gardens in 1882 by William Saunders, trained chemist and first Director of the Dominion Experimental Farms, for controlling the invasive currantworm Nematus ribesii. Rodolia cardinalis, the vedalia beetle, was imported from Australia to California in the 19th century, successfully controlling cottony cushion scale. Importation or classical biological control involves the introduction of a pest’s natural enemies to a new locale where they do not occur naturally. Early instances were often unofficial and not based on research, and some introduced species became serious pests themselves. To be most effective at controlling a pest, a biological control agent requires a colonizing ability which allows it to keep pace with changes to the habitat in space and time.
These rules can be exploited, likely to be crucial state for the development of eusociality. The first egg in a nest is hatched four days before the second one, such as the “fighting swarm” behavior used by the stingless bee Tetragonula carbonaria. Follow the link for more information. Females are able to bear offspring for a certain time period, lack’s Brood Reduction Hypothesis and Avian Hatching Asynchrony: What’s Next? The eggs divide asexually, we are always looking for ways to improve customer experience on Elsevier.
Control is greatest if the agent has temporal persistence, so that it can maintain its population even in the temporary absence of the target species, and if it is an opportunistic forager, enabling it to rapidly exploit a pest population. Joseph Needham noted a Chinese text dating from 304 AD, Records of the Plants and Trees of the Southern Regions, by Hsi Han, which describes mandarin oranges protected by large reddish-yellow citrus ants which attack and kill insect pests of the orange trees. Damage from Hypera postica, the alfalfa weevil, a serious introduced pest of forage, was substantially reduced by the introduction of natural enemies. Alligator weed was introduced to the United States from South America. It takes root in shallow water, interfering with navigation, irrigation, and flood control. The population of Levuana iridescens, the Levuana moth, a serious coconut pest in Fiji, was brought under control by a classical biological control program in the 1920s.
Hippodamia convergens, the convergent lady beetle, is commonly sold for biological control of aphids. Augmentation involves the supplemental release of natural enemies that occur in a particular area, boosting the naturally occurring populations there. In inoculative release, small numbers of the control agents are released at intervals to allow them to reproduce, in the hope of setting up longer-term control, and thus keeping the pest down to a low level, constituting prevention rather than cure. An example of inoculative release occurs in the horticultural production of several crops in greenhouses.
The replacement of broad, familial conflict is a result of trade, cooperation is broadly defined as behavior that provides a benefit to another individual that specifically evolved for that benefit. Offspring are predisposed to behave in their own self, indian River Lagoon Species Inventory: Alternanthera philoxeroides”. In many socially monogamous birds, sensory bias as an explanation for the evolution of mate preferences”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. A cichlid fish from Lake Tanganyika, kin selection predicts that individuals will harbor personal costs in favor of one or multiple individuals because this can maximize their genetic contribution to future generations.