Please forward this error screen to sharedip-1071800229. Please forward this error screen to 216. Please forward this error screen duane’s retraction syndrome pdf 23. This article has multiple issues.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. AR pupils are extremely uncommon in the developed world. There is continued interest in the underlying pathophysiology, but the scarcity of cases makes ongoing research difficult. The two different types of near response are caused by different underlying disease processes. The pathophysiologic mechanism which produces an Argyll Robertson pupil is unclear, but is believed to be the result of bilateral damage to the pretectal nuclei in the midbrain. Studies have failed to demonstrate a focal localising lesion. AR pupils from tonic pupils.
Tonic pupils can occur in neurosyphilis. The evidence supports a midbrain cause of the AR pupil, provided one follows Loewenfeld’s definition of the AR pupil as small pupils that react very poorly to light and yet seem to retain a normal pupillary near response that is definitely not tonic. Due to the lack of detail in the older literature and the scarcity of AR pupils at the present time, it is not known whether syphilis can cause Parinaud syndrome. It is not known whether AR pupils are any different from the pupils seen in other dorsal midbrain lesions. The condition is diagnosed clinically by a physician. There is no definite treatment.
Because syphilis may be an underlying cause, it should be treated. Treatment includes penicillin g benzathine 2. Scottish ophthalmologist and surgeon who described the condition in the mid-1860s in the context of neurosyphilis. AR pupils are now quite rare. Physiology, assessment, and disorders of the pupil. Loewenfeld, PhD Physiologist of the Pupil. This page was last edited on 17 March 2018, at 01:20.
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