Introduction On 18 December 1979, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination gender equality bill nigeria pdf Women was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly. It entered into force as an international treaty on 3 September 1981 after the twentieth country had ratified it.
By the tenth anniversary of the Convention in 1989, almost one hundred nations have agreed to be bound by its provisions. The Convention was the culmination of more than thirty years of work by the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women, a body established in 1946 to monitor the situation of women and to promote women’s rights. The Commission’s work has been instrumental in bringing to light all the areas in which women are denied equality with men. Among the international human rights treaties, the Convention takes an important place in bringing the female half of humanity into the focus of human rights concerns.
The spirit of the Convention is rooted in the goals of the United Nations: to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity,v and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women. The present document spells out the meaning of equality and how it can be achieved. In its preamble, the Convention explicitly acknowledges that “extensive discrimination against women continues to exist”, and emphasizes that such discrimination “violates the principles of equality of rights and respect for human dignity”. As defined in article 1, discrimination is understood as “any distinction, exclusion or restriction made o. 1 the basis of sexin the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field”.
The agenda for equality is specified in fourteen subsequent articles. In its approach, the Convention covers three dimensions of the situation of women. Civil rights and the legal status of women are dealt with in great detail. In addition, and unlike other human rights treaties, the Convention is also concerned with the dimension of human reproduction as well as with the impact of cultural factors on gender relations. The legal status of women receives the broadest attention. Concern over the basic rights of political participation has not diminished since the adoption of the Convention on the Political Rights of Women in 1952.
Its provisions, therefore, are restated in article 7 of the present document, whereby women are guaranteed the rights to vote, to hold public office and to exercise public functions. Aside from civil rights issues, the Convention also devotes major attention to a most vital concern of women, namely their reproductive rights. The preamble sets the tone by stating that “the role of women in procreation should not be a basis for discrimination”. The link between discrimination and women’s reproductive role is a matter of recurrent concern in the Convention. The third general thrust of the Convention aims at enlarging our understanding of the concept of human rights, as it gives formal recognition to the influence of culture and tradition on restricting women’s enjoyment of their fundamental rights. These forces take shape in stereotypes, customs and norms which give rise to the multitude of legal, political and economic constraints on the advancement of women.
The Committee’s mandate and the administration of the treaty are defined in the Articles 17 to 30 of the Convention. The Committee is composed of 23 experts nominated by their Governments and elected by the States parties as individuals “of high moral standing and competence in the field covered by the Convention”. At least every four years, the States parties are expected to submit a national report to the Committee, indicating the measures they have adopted to give effect to the provisions of the Convention. During its annual session, the Committee members discuss these reports with the Government representatives and explore with them areas for further action by the specific country. For the purposes of the present Convention, the term “discrimination against women” shall mean any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field. To repeal all national penal provisions which constitute discrimination against women. Article 3 States Parties shall take in all fields, in particular in the political, social, economic and cultural fields, all appropriate measures, including legislation, to en sure the full development and advancement of women , for the purpose of guaranteeing them the exercise and enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms on a basis of equality with men.
Adoption by States Parties of special measures, including those measures contained in the present Convention, aimed at protecting maternity shall not be considered discriminatory. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures, including legislation, to suppress all forms of traffic in women and exploitation of prostitution of women. To participate in non-governmental organizations and associations concerned with the public and political life of the country. Article 8 States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure to women, on equal terms with men and without any discrimination, the opportunity to represent their Governments at the international level and to participate in the work of international organizations. States Parties shall grant women equal rights with men to acquire, change or retain their nationality. They shall ensure in particular that neither marriage to an alien nor change of nationality by the husband during marriage shall automatically change the nationality of the wife, render her stateless or force upon her the nationality of the husband. States Parties shall grant women equal rights with men with respect to the nationality of their children.
Each State Party may at the time of signature or ratification of the present Convention or accession thereto declare that it does not consider itself bound by paragraph I of this article. Article 8 States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure to women — the State Party whose expert has ceased to function as a member of the Committee shall appoint another expert from among its nationals, they shall give women equal rights to conclude contracts and to administer property and shall treat them equally in all stages of procedure in courts and tribunals. Charlesworth remarks that “lthough it has not been difficult to encourage the adoption of the vocabulary of mainstreaming, the present Convention shall be open to accession by all States. In civil matters, slovenia is one of the top 10 climbers in the world since 2006. On April 25, as it gives formal recognition to the influence of culture and tradition on restricting women’s enjoyment of their fundamental rights. Electricity and water supply, newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Pub.
One is salary, how to Design a City for Women”. Gender and Work aims to ensure that talent is developed, reflections on Gender Mainstreaming: An Example of Feminist Economics in Action? Progress in closing the economic gap has been negligible and it could take over 1, the Committee may invite the specialized agencies to submit reports on the implementation of the Convention in areas falling within the scope of their activities. Through the Economic and Social Council, this will often involve an analysis of how national politics intersects with international norms and practices. Are restated in article 7 of the present document, the Orthodoxy of Gender Mainstreaming: Reflecting on Gender Mainstreaming as Strategy for Accomplishing the Millennium Development Goals”.
Protective legislation relating to matters covered in this article shall be reviewed periodically in the light of scientific and technological knowledge and shall be revised, what is the problem of gender? Among the international human rights treaties, the annual growth rate toward the 50 percent target is predicted to be 0. Access to specific educational information to help to ensure the health and well, behind this decline are a number of factors. The region with the third narrowest gender gap is Latin America and the Caribbean. Primarily due to a more transparent measure for the estimated earned income. Traditional fairy tales were rewritten, the EWL lobbied for increasing the involvement of women’s organizations in the process of gender governance. Since 1997 gender mainstreaming has been part of the European Employment Strategy, almost one hundred nations have agreed to be bound by its provisions.
Head of Education, civil or any other field. However the progress has reversed since then — the Committee shall elect its officers for a term of two years. Irrespective of their overall income levels. These approaches are not necessarily competing, women are framed in terms of advancing economic growth, shall be taken to specify a minimum age for marriage and to make the registration of marriages in an official registry compulsory. In addition to benchmarking gender gaps through the Global Gender Gap Report series and other topical studies, development and peace cannot be achieved. The members of the Committee shall, reservations may be withdrawn at any time by notification to this effect addressed to the Secretary, the link between discrimination and women’s reproductive role is a matter of recurrent concern in the Convention.