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This article is written like a personal reflection or opinion essay that states a Wikipedia editor’s personal feelings about a topic. A sailor allows a driver to enter a military installation. The act of accessing may mean consuming, entering, or using. Locks and login credentials are two analogous mechanisms of access control.
There may be fences to avoid circumventing this access control. The term access control refers to the practice of restricting entrance to a property, a building, or a room to authorized persons. Physical access control is a matter of who, where, and when. An access control system determines who is allowed to enter or exit, where they are allowed to exit or enter, and when they are allowed to enter or exit. Historically, this was partially accomplished through keys and locks.
When a door is locked, only someone with a key can enter through the door, depending on how the lock is configured. Mechanical locks and keys do not allow restriction of the key holder to specific times or dates. Electronic access control uses computers to solve the limitations of mechanical locks and keys. A wide range of credentials can be used to replace mechanical keys. The electronic access control system grants access based on the credential presented. When access is granted, the door is unlocked for a predetermined time and the transaction is recorded. When a credential is presented to a reader, the reader sends the credential’s information, usually a number, to a control panel, a highly reliable processor.
The control panel compares the credential’s number to an access control list, grants or denies the presented request, and sends a transaction log to a database. The above description illustrates a single factor transaction. Credentials can be passed around, thus subverting the access control list. Passwords are a common means of verifying a user’s identity before access is given to information systems. In addition, a fourth factor of authentication is now recognized: someone you know, whereby another person who knows you can provide a human element of authentication in situations where systems have been set up to allow for such scenarios. For example, a user may have their password, but have forgotten their smart card.