For the fields of speech and debate, see Public speaking and Debate. Forensic scientists collect, preserve, and analyze scientific evidence during principles and methods of toxicology hayes pdf course of an investigation. While some forensic scientists travel to the scene of the crime to collect the evidence themselves, others occupy a laboratory role, performing analysis on objects brought to them by other individuals. In addition to their laboratory role, forensic scientists testify as expert witnesses in both criminal and civil cases and can work for either the prosecution or the defense.
While any field could technically be forensic, certain sections have developed over time to encompass the majority of forensically related cases. The word forensic comes from the Latin term forensis, meaning “of or before the forum. The history of the term originates from Roman times, during which a criminal charge meant presenting the case before a group of public individuals in the forum. This section needs additional citations for verification. The ancient world lacked standardized forensic practices, which aided criminals in escaping punishment.
Criminal investigations and trials heavily relied on forced confessions and witness testimony. Song Ci ruled regulation about autopsy report for court, how to protect the evidence in the examining process, the reason why workers must show examination to public impartiality. He realized it was a sickle by testing various blades on an animal carcass and comparing the wound. Flies, attracted by the smell of blood, eventually gathered on a single sickle. In light of this, the murderer confessed. Methods from around the world involved saliva and examination of the mouth and tongue to determine innocence or guilt, as a precursor to the Polygraph test.
In ancient India, some suspects were made to fill their mouths with dried rice and spit it back out. Ambroise Paré’s surgical work laid the groundwork for the development of forensic techniques in the following centuries. In 16th-century Europe, medical practitioners in army and university settings began to gather information on the cause and manner of death. Ambroise Paré, a French army surgeon, systematically studied the effects of violent death on internal organs. In Warwick 1816, a farm laborer was tried and convicted of the murder of a young maidservant. She had been drowned in a shallow pool and bore the marks of violent assault. The police found footprints and an impression from corduroy cloth with a sewn patch in the damp earth near the pool.