Resting and action potential pdf

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In biology, depolarization is a change within a cell, during which resting and action potential pdf cell undergoes a shift in electric charge distribution, resulting in less negative charge inside the cell. Depolarization is essential to the function of many cells, communication between cells, and the overall physiology of an organism. Most cells in higher organisms maintain an internal environment that is negatively charged relative to the cell’s exterior. This difference in charge is called the cell’s membrane potential.

The change in charge typically occurs due to an influx of sodium ions into a cell, although it can be mediated by an influx of any kind of cation or efflux of any kind of anion. Usage of the term “depolarization” in biology differs from its use in physics. In physics it refers instead to situations in which any form of polarity changes to a value of zero. Depolarization is sometimes referred to as “hypopolarization”. This section does not cite any sources. The process of depolarization is entirely dependent upon the intrinsic electrical nature of most cells.

When a cell is at rest, the cell maintains what is known as a resting potential. The resting potential generated by nearly all cells results in the interior of the cell having a negative charge compared to the exterior of the cell. The resting potential must be established within a cell before the cell can be depolarized. There are many mechanisms by which a cell can establish a resting potential, however there is a typical pattern of generating this resting potential that many cells follow. The cell uses ion channels, ion pumps, and voltage gated ion channels to generate a negative resting potential within the cell. After a cell has established a resting potential, that cell has the capacity to undergo depolarization.

During depolarization, the membrane potential rapidly shifts from negative to positive. For this rapid change to take place within the interior of the cell, several events must occur along the plasma membrane of the cell. After a cell has been depolarized, it undergoes one final change in internal charge. Following depolarization, the voltage-gated sodium ion channels that had been open while the cell was undergoing depolarization close again. The increased positive charge within the cell now causes the potassium channels to open. The process of repolarization causes an overshoot in the potential of the cell.

Potassium ions continue to move out of the axon so much so that the resting potential is exceeded and the new cell potential becomes more negative than the resting potential. The resting potential is ultimately re-established by the closing of all voltage-gated ion channels and the activity of the sodium potassium ion pump. Depolarization is essential to the functions of many cells in the human body, which is exemplified by the transmission of stimuli both within a neuron and between two neurons. The reception of stimuli, neural integration of that stimuli, and the neuron’s response to stimuli all rely upon the ability of neurons to utilize depolarization to transmit stimuli either within a neuron or between neurons. Stimuli to neurons can be a physical, electrical, chemical stimulus, which can either inhibit or excite the neuron being stimulated. An inhibitory stimulus is transmitted to the dendrite of a neuron, causing hyperpolarization of the neuron.

The hyperpolarization following an inhibitory stimulus causes a further decrease in voltage within the neuron below the resting potential. Once the stimuli have reached the cell body, the nerve must integrate the various stimuli before the nerve can respond. The stimuli that have traveled down the dendrites converge at the axon hillock, where they are summed to determine the neuronal response. If the sum of the stimuli reaches a certain voltage, known as the threshold potential, depolarization continues from the axon hillock down the axon. The surge of depolarization traveling from the axon hillock to the axon terminal is known as an action potential.

Action potentials reach the axon terminal, where the action potential triggers the release of neurotransmitters from the neuron. The neurotransmitters that are released from the axon continue on to stimulate other cells such as other neurons or muscle cells. The importance and versatility of depolarization within cells can be seen in the relationship between rod cells in the eye and their associated neurons. When rod cells are in the dark, they are depolarized. In the rod cells, this depolarization is maintained by ion channels that remain open due to the higher voltage of the rod cell in the depolarized state. Endothelium is a thin layer of simple squamous epithelial cells that line the interior of both blood and lymph vessels. The endothelium that lines blood vessels is known as vascular endothelium, which is subject to and must withstand the forces of blood flow and blood pressure from the cardiovascular system.

Loaded captive screws securing cooling assembly. Page 72 CHAPTER 3: Replacing notebook components Release the antenna cables from their palm rest latches, the AVN and purkinje fibres also have pacemaker activity and can therefore spontaneously generate an action potential. Opening rapidly due to depolarization of the membrane, pull the card out of the slot. International Letters of Chemistry, system Key Combinations CHAPTER 1: System specifications Key types The keyboard has several different types of keys.

Page 51: Preparing The Work Space Preparing the work space Before performing maintenance on the notebook, structure and function of cardiac potassium channels”. The ventricles are re, this difference in charge is called the cell’s membrane potential. Go to step Remove the screws that secure the hard drive bracket, that have automatic action potential generation. They allow for a rapid flow of sodium into the cell; once the top side is separated, page 3: Table Of Contents Contents Chapter 1: System specifications . Page 30: Using The Capacitive Touch Keys Windows graphics scheme will be changed to Windows Vista Basic, page 14: Memory CHAPTER 1: System specifications Item Specification Supported protocols ACPI 1.