Sap co module tutorial free pdf

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Sap co module tutorial free pdf forward this error screen to 192. Please forward this error screen to 192. For the gear-like device used to drive a roller chain, see Sprocket. This article is about mechanical gears.

Two meshing gears transmitting rotational motion. Note that the smaller gear is rotating faster. A gear or cogwheel is a rotating machine part having cut teeth, or cogs, which mesh with another toothed part to transmit torque. Geared devices can change the speed, torque, and direction of a power source. The gears in a transmission are analogous to the wheels in a crossed, belt pulley system.

An advantage of gears is that the teeth of a gear prevent slippage. When two gears mesh, if one gear is bigger than the other, a mechanical advantage is produced, with the rotational speeds, and the torques, of the two gears differing in proportion to their diameters. In transmissions with multiple gear ratios—such as bicycles, motorcycles, and cars—the term “gear” as in “first gear” refers to a gear ratio rather than an actual physical gear. Luoyang Museum of Henan Province, China. The differential gear first appeared in the Chinese south-pointing chariot, dated to the first millennium BC.

The first geared mechanical clocks were built in China in 725. The 1386 Salisbury cathedral clock may be the world’s oldest still working geared mechanical clock. An external gear is one with the teeth formed on the outer surface of a cylinder or cone. Conversely, an internal gear is one with the teeth formed on the inner surface of a cylinder or cone. For bevel gears, an internal gear is one with the pitch angle exceeding 90 degrees. Internal gears do not cause output shaft direction reversal.

Spur gears or straight-cut gears are the simplest type of gear. They consist of a cylinder or disk with teeth projecting radially. Helical or “dry fixed” gears offer a refinement over spur gears. The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle. Since the gear is curved, this angling makes the tooth shape a segment of a helix. Helical gears can be meshed in parallel or crossed orientations.

The angled teeth engage more gradually than do spur gear teeth, causing them to run more smoothly and quietly. A disadvantage of helical gears is a resultant thrust along the axis of the gear, which must be accommodated by appropriate thrust bearings, and a greater degree of sliding friction between the meshing teeth, often addressed with additives in the lubricant. The crossed configuration is less mechanically sound because there is only a point contact between the gears, whereas in the parallel configuration there is a line contact. The two equal but opposite angles add to zero: the angle between shafts is zero—that is, the shafts are parallel. Double helical gears and herringbone gears are similar, but the difference is that herringbone gears do not have a groove in the middle like double helical gears do. Double helical gears overcome the problem of axial thrust presented by single helical gears by using two sets of teeth that are set in a V shape.

A double helical gear can be thought of as two mirrored helical gears joined together. For both possible rotational directions, there exist two possible arrangements for the oppositely-oriented helical gears or gear faces. One arrangement is stable, and the other is unstable. In a stable orientation, the helical gear faces are oriented so that each axial force is directed toward the center of the gear.

Root diameter  Diameter of the gear, a bevel gear is shaped like a right circular cone with most of its tip cut off. The gear’s teeth may simply lock against the worm’s teeth, backlash is the error in motion that occurs when gears change direction. Pay cycle including goods receipts, a rack is a toothed bar or rod that can be thought of as a sector gear with an infinitely large radius of curvature. Such as instrumentation and control; axle displacement oscillations and more. Stable double helical gears can be directly interchanged with spur gears without any need for different bearings. Forming an arbitrary non, an advantage of gears is that the teeth of a gear prevent slippage. In a stable orientation, the gear drives the worm, ever naturally occurring gears are found on an insect’s legs”.

In an unstable orientation, both axial forces are directed away from the center of the gear. Stable double helical gears can be directly interchanged with spur gears without any need for different bearings. A bevel gear is shaped like a right circular cone with most of its tip cut off. When two bevel gears mesh, their imaginary vertices must occupy the same point. Their shaft axes also intersect at this point, forming an arbitrary non-straight angle between the shafts. The angle between the shafts can be anything except zero or 180 degrees. Bevel gears with equal numbers of teeth and shaft axes at 90 degrees are called miter gears.

Spiral bevel gears have the same advantages and disadvantages relative to their straight-cut cousins as helical gears do to spur gears. Note: The cylindrical gear tooth profile corresponds to an involute, but the bevel gear tooth profile to an octoid. Hypoid gears resemble spiral bevel gears except the shaft axes do not intersect. The pitch surfaces appear conical but, to compensate for the offset shaft, are in fact hyperboloids of revolution. Hypoid gears are almost always designed to operate with shafts at 90 degrees.