Mannitol is a type of sugar alcohol which is also used as a medication. Common side effects from medical use include electrolyte problems tarascon pocket pharmacopoeia 2016 pdf dehydration. The discovery of mannitol is attributed to Joseph Louis Proust in 1806.
Mannitol is used to reduce acutely raised intracranial pressure until more definitive treatment can be applied, e. It may also be used for certain cases of kidney failure with low urine output, decreasing pressure in the eye, to increase the elimination of certain toxins, and to treat fluid build up. Mannitol acts as an osmotic laxative in oral doses larger than 20 g, and is sometimes sold as a laxative for children. The use of mannitol, when inhaled, as a bronchial irritant as an alternative method of diagnosis of exercise-induced asthma has been proposed.
A 2013 systematic review concluded evidence to support its use for this purpose at this time is insufficient. Mannitol is commonly used in the circuit prime of a heart lung machine during cardiopulmonary bypass. The presence of mannitol preserves renal function during the times of low blood flow and pressure, while the patient is on bypass. Because the mannitol dissolves readily in blood, the sharp point will become exposed at its destination. Mannitol is also the first drug of choice for the treatment of acute glaucoma in veterinary medicine.
It dehydrates the vitreous humor and, therefore, lowers the intraocular pressure. However, it requires an intact blood-ocular barrier to work. Mannitol can be used to form a complex with boric acid. This increases the acid strength of the boric acid, permitting better precision in volumetric analysis of this acid. Mannitol is the primary ingredient of mannitol salt agar, a bacterial growth medium, and is used in others. Mannitol is popularly used as a cutting agent in cocaine. Other sugar alcohols include xylitol and sorbitol.
Induced Tendinopathy and Tendon Rupture: What Does The Clinician Need To Know? J settled 845 cases in the Minnesota action, archived from the original on 26 October 2012. While its adverse effects are typically mild to moderate, while the patient is on bypass. Activity and structure, effect relationships for the quinolone antibacterials”.