World geography and cultures 2008 textbook pdf

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This article is about the academic field. World geography and cultures 2008 textbook pdf a global overview of historical events, see History of the world. It examines history from a global perspective.

The advent of world history as a distinct academic field of study can be traced to 1980s, and was heralded by the creation of the World History Association and graduate programs at a handful of universities. Over the next decades scholarly publications, professional and academic organizations, and graduate programs in world history proliferated. The H-World discussion list serves as a network of communication among practitioners of world history, with discussions among scholars, announcements, syllabi, bibliographies and book reviews. The Journal of World History has been published quarterly by the World History Association since 1990. The Journal of Global History is a scholarly journal established in 2006 and is published by Cambridge University Press. Established in the 1980s, the WHA is predominantly an American phenomenon.

The study of world history, as distinct from national history, has existed in many world cultures. However, early forms of world history were not truly global, and were limited to only the regions known by the historian. In Ancient China, Chinese world history, that of China and the surrounding people of East Asia, was based on the dynastic cycle articulated by Sima Qian in circa 100 BC. Greek historiography, presents insightful and lively discussions of the customs, geography, and history of Mediterranean peoples, particularly the Egyptians. In Central Asia, The Secret History of Mongols is regarded as the single significant native Mongolian account of Genghis Khan.

The Secret History is regarded as a piece of classic literature in both Mongolia and the rest of the world. The standard edition of Juvayni is published under the title Ta’ rīkh-i jahān-gushā, ed. Muqaddimah, an exposition of the methodology of scientific history. Ibn Khaldun focused on the reasons for the rise and fall of civilization, arguing that the causes of change are to be sought in the economic and social structure of society. His work was largely ignored in the Muslim world. During the Renaissance in Europe, history was written about states or nations.

The study of history changed during the Enlightenment and Romanticism. 1725, which argued history as the expression of human will and deeds. He thought that men are historical entities and that human nature changes over time. A major theoretical foundation for world history was given by German philosopher G.

World history became a popular genre in the 20th century with universal history. 1954, Toynbee’s ten-volume A Study of History came out in three separate installments. He followed Spengler in taking a comparative topical approach to independent civilizations. Toynbee said they displayed striking parallels in their origin, growth, and decay. Toynbee rejected Spengler’s biological model of civilizations as organisms with a typical life span of 1,000 years. With additional authors, this very successful work went through numerous editions up to the first decade of the twenty-first century. In schools of architecture in the U.